Chapter 3-Traits And Characteristics Of The Grahas
कथितं भवता प्रेम्णा ग्रहावतरणं मुने।
तेषं गुणस्वरूपाद्यं कृपया कथ्यतां पुनः॥ १॥
1. Sage, you have kindly explained how the grahas incarnate. Would you please now tell me their traits and characteristics.
शृणु विप्र प्रवक्ष्यामि भग्रहाणां परिस्थितिम्।
आकाशे यानि दृश्यन्ते ज्योतिर्बिम्बात्यनेकशः॥ २॥
2. Listen, Vipra, whilst I describe the celestial bodies found in the heavens. They make their appearance as innumerable illuminated objects in the sky.
तेषु नक्षत्रसंज्ञानि ग्रहसंज्ञानि कानिचित्।
तानि नक्षत्रनामानि स्थिरस्थानानि यानि चै॥ ३॥
3. There are the nakshatras; the lunar constellations. And there are the grahas; the Sun, Moon and the planets. The positions of the nakshatras are fixed.
The nakshatras are twenty-seven constellations through which the Sun, Moon and planets traverse. The Moon spends about one day in each nakshatra.
गच्छन्तो भानि गृह्णन्ति सततं ये तु ते ग्रहः।।
भचक्रस्य नगाश्व्यंशा अश्विन्यादिसमाह्वयाः॥ ४॥
4. Whilst the grahas, forever influencing destiny, are in perpetual motion. The twenty-seven nakshatras, beginning with Asvini, form the circle-of-stars.
तद्द्वादशविभागास्तु तुल्य मेषादिसंज्ञकाः।।
प्रसिद्धा राशयः सन्ति ग्रहास्त्वर्कादिसंज्ञकाः॥ ५॥
5. This circle is similarly divided into twelve rashis or signs, beginning with Mesha. The grahas commence with Arka (the Sun).
The twelve rashis are Mesha, Vrishabha, Mithuna, Karak, Simha, Kanya, Tula, Vrishchika, Dhanu, Makara, Kumbha and Meena. We learn more about the rashis in the next chapter.
राशीनामुदयो लग्नं तद्वशादेव जन्मिनाम्।
ग्रहयोग्वियोगाभ्यां फलं चिन्त्यं शुभाशुभम्॥ ६॥
6. The rashi rising at birth is called the lagna. The fortune or misfortune of the one born to seek divinity is to be considered from the lagna and the joining and departing of the grahas.
संज्ञा नक्षत्रवृन्दानां ज्ञेयाः सामान्यशास्त्रतः।
एतच्छास्त्रानुसारेण राशिखेटफलं ब्रुवे॥ ७॥
7. Knowledge of the nakshatras can be found in various Vedic literature. Based on the authority of this literature I shall tell you the effects of the rashis and grahas.
यस्मिन् काले यतः खेटा यान्ति दृग्गणितैकताम्।
तत एव स्फुटाः कार्याः दिक्कालौ च स्फुटौ विद॥ ८॥
8. The vastness of time and space is reflected in the astronomical observations and calculations of drikganita. The positions of the Sun, Moon and the planets for any given time are determined from it.
स्वस्वदेशोद्भवैः साध्यं लग्नं राश्युदयैः स्फुटम्।
अथादौ वच्मि खेटानां जातिरूपगुणानहम्॥ ९॥
9. And the lagna is similarly determined by knowing the respective times that each of the signs rise. Now I will tell you about the status, traits and characteristics of the grahas.
अथ खेटा रविश्चन्द्रो मङ्गलश्च बुधस्तथा।
गुरुः शुक्रः शनी राहुः केतुश्चैते यथाक्रमम्॥ १०॥
10. The grahas, in their order, are Ravi, Chandra, Mangala, Budha, Guru, Shukra, Sani, Rahu and Ketu.
क्रूराः शेषग्रहा सौम्याः क्रूरः क्रूरयुतो बुधः॥ ११॥
11. Arka, Sani, Bhuputra, waning Indu, Rahu and Ketu are harsh or cruel. The other grahas are gentle, auspicious. Budha together with a harsh graha becomes harsh as well.
सर्वात्मा च दिवानाथो मनः कुमुदबान्धवः।
सत्त्वं कुजो बुधैः प्रोक्तो बुधो वाणीप्रदायकः॥ १२॥
12. The lord of the sky (Sun) is all atma. Kumudabandhava is the mind. Kuja is sattva. Budha is spoken of as the clever giver of language.
In this verse and the next our Sage elucidates
each graha with a succinct one or two word description.
The Sun is all atma. Atma is consciousness, the essence of the self or soul. All atma come from Paramatma, the ultimate, universal Self. The individual self finds enlightenment in the realisation of its status as the universal Self.
The Moon is mind. The Moon reflects the light of the Sun in the same way that the mind reflects the light of consciousness.
Mars is sattva. Sattva is energy in its purest, most powerful and creative form. This energy gives rise to dynamic activity.
Mercury is the giver of language, both spoken and written. Language is intimately connected with the intellect.
देवेज्यो ज्ञानसुखदो भृगुर्वीर्यप्रदयकः।
ऋषिभिः प्राक्तनैः प्रोक्तश्छायासूनुश्च दुःखदः॥ १३॥
13. Devejya is the bliss of knowledge. Bhrigu gives virility, so say the ancient seers. Whilst Chayasunu brings grief.
Jupiter is blissful knowledge.
Knowledge is structured in consciousness and
the experience of complete knowledge is the experience of the bliss of unbounded awareness.
Venus is virility, the power of reproduction.
Saturn brings grief, suffering, misery.
रविचन्द्रौ तु राजानौ नेता ज्ञेयो धरात्मजः।
बुधो राजकुमारश्च सचिवौ गुरुभार्गवौ॥ १४॥
14. Ravi and Chandra are King and Queen. Dharatmaja is the Commander-in-chief. Budha is the Prince whilst Guru and Bhargava are both Councellors to the King.
The King has the power and authority
to form government.
The Queen is affluent, sociable and has influence with the public.
The Commander-in-chief is courageous, ambitious, aggressive, has enemies and acts on the authority of the King.
The Prince is young and is a mediator and a diplomat.
Jupiter counsels on matters of justice, finance and education.
Whilst Venus advises on culture and the arts.
प्रेष्यको रविपुत्रश्च सेना स्वर्भानुपुच्छकौ।
एवं क्रमेण वै विप्र सूर्यादीन् प्रविचिन्तयेत्॥ १५॥
15. Raviputra is a servant. Svarbhanu and its tail (Ketu) form an army. In this way, step by step, we come to understand Surya and the other grahas.
Saturn serves the needs of others.
Whilst the army of Rahu and Ketu is directed by others.
रक्तश्यामो दिवाधीशो गौरगात्रो निशाकरः।
नात्युच्चाङ्गः कुजो रक्तो दूर्वाश्यामो बुधस्तथा॥ १६॥
16. The lord of the day (Sun) is dark red. The maker of night (Moon) has a white body. Kuja, who is not tall, is red. Whilst Budha is the colour of grass.
गौरगात्रो गुरुर्ज्ञेयः शुक्रः श्यावस्तथैव च।
कृष्णदेहो रवेः पुत्रो ज्ञायते द्विजसत्तम॥ १७॥
17. Guru's body is a beautiful pale yellow. Shukra appears dark brown whilst Raviputra is blue/black. They are all known thus, O best of the twice born.
वह्न्यम्बुशिखिजा विष्णुविढौजः शचिका द्विज।
सूर्यादीनां खगानां च देवा ज्ञेयाः क्रमेण च॥ १८॥
18. The god of fire, the god of water, the god of war, Vishnu, Vidaujas, Sachi, and Ka are the gods of the Sun and the others in their order.
The god of fire refers to Agni. The god of water, Varuna. The god of war is Subrahmanya. Vidaujas is another name for Indra, the king of the gods. Sachi is Indra's queen. Ka is another name for Brahma.
क्लीवौ द्वौ सौम्यसौरी च युवतीन्दुभृगू द्विज।
नराः शेषाश्च विज्ञेया भानुर्भौमो गुरुस्तथा॥ १९॥
19. Saumya and Sauri are both neuters. Indu and Bhrigu are female. The others, Bhanu, Bhauma and Guru, are male. Learn this o twice born.
The grahas bring a male, female or neutral influence.
अग्निभूमिनभस्तोयवायवः क्रमतो द्विज।
भौमादीनां ग्रहाणां च तत्त्वानीति यथाक्रमम्॥ २०॥
20. Fire, earth, space, water, air in that order, o twice born, are the primary elements of the planets starting with Bhauma, in their order.
गुरुशुक्रौ विप्रवर्णौ कुजार्कौ क्षत्रियौ द्विज।
शशिसोम्यौ वैश्यवर्णौ शनिः शूद्रो द्विजोत्तम्॥ २१॥
21. Guru and Shukra are both brahmins. Kuja and Arka are ksatrias. Sasija and Soma are vaishyas. Whilst Sani is a sudra.
Society can be divided into four categories. The brahmins are the educated class with the responsibility for maintaining the integrity of knowledge, particularly the Vedas. The ksatrias maintain social order through the institutions of government, the military and the police. The vaishyas are the wheels of industry and commerce, whilst the sudras provide the necessary manpower.
जीवसूर्येन्द्रवः सत्त्वं बुधशुक्रौ रजस्तथा।
सूर्यपुत्रधरापुत्रौ तमःप्रकृतिकौ द्विज॥ २२॥
22. Jiva, Surya and Indu are sattvic. Budha and Shukra are rajasic. Suryaputra and Dharaputra are both tamasic.
पित्तप्रकृतिको धीमान् पुमानल्पकचो द्विज॥ २३॥
23. Surya has honey-brown eyes and a square shaped body with little hair on his head. He is intelligent, learned and lives a life of purity. He has a pitta constitution.
बहुवातकफः प्राज्ञश्चन्द्रो वृत्ततनुर्द्विज।
शुभदृङ्मधुवाक्यश्च चञ्चलो मदनातुरः॥ २४॥
24. Chandra has a vata-kapha constitution. He has a round figure, beautiful eyes and speaks sweetly. He is wise and sensible. He is always on the move and looks for excitement.
क्रूरो रक्तेक्षणो भौमश्चपलोदारमूर्तिकः।
पित्तप्रकृतिकः क्रोधी कृशमध्यतनुर्द्विज॥ २५॥
25. Bhauma is fierce with reddened, excited eyes. He moves swiftly and energetically. He has a pitta constitution, is hot-tempered, and has a thin waist.
वपुःश्रेष्ठः श्लिष्टवाक्च ह्यतिहास्यरुचिर्बुधः।
पित्तवान् कफवान् विप्र मारुतप्रकृतिस्तथा॥ २६॥
26. Budha has a beautiful physique and enjoys words that have double meaning. He takes pleasure in jokes and likes to laugh. He has a vata-pitta-kapha constitution.
बृहद्गात्रो गुरुश्चैव पिङ्गलो मूर्द्धजेक्षणे।
कफप्रकृतिको धीमान् सर्वशास्त्रविशारदः॥ २७॥
27. Guru has a large body, and golden-brown eyes and hair. He has a kapha constitution. He is intelligent, wise and is learned in all the scriptures.
सुखि कान्तवपु श्रेष्ठः सुलोचनो भृगोः सुतः।
काव्यकर्ता कफाधिक्योऽनिलात्मा वक्रमूर्धजः॥ २८॥
28. Brigu has a beautiful figure, lovely eyes and curly hair. He is a poet and enjoys the good life. He has a kapha-vata constitution.
कृश्दीर्घतनुः शौरिः पिङ्गदृष्ट्यनिलात्मकः।
स्थूलदन्तोऽलसः पंगुः खररोमकचो द्विज॥ २९॥
29. Sauri is tall and lean, has yellow-brown eyes, large teeth and course hair. He is slow or completely still, is lame and has a vata constitution.
धूम्राकारो नीलतनुर्वनस्थोऽपि भयंकरः।
वातप्रकृतिको धीमान् स्वर्भानुस्तत्समः शिखी॥ ३०॥
30. Svarbhanu is obscure. He is a reclusive ascetic of blue colour. He brings fear, distress, peril and disease. He has a vata nature. He is intelligent and learned like Jupiter. Shikhi is similar.
In the second verse of this chapter, our Sage tells us how the celestial realm appears as illuminated objects in the sky. Rahu and Ketu, however, make no such appearance. Their positions only become apparent when they obscure the Sun or Moon during an eclipse.
अस्थि रक्तस्तथा मज्जा त्वग् वसा वीर्यमेव च।
स्नायुरेषामधीशाश्च क्रमात् सूर्यादयो द्विज॥ ३१॥
31. Bone, blood, marrow, skin, fat, semen and muscle are ruled by the Sun and the others in their usual order.
Ayurveda cites seven primary physiological elements, or dhatus, as listed above. Parashara assigns those elements to the grahas in the usual order. The reader may have noted that this list varies from the classical seven dhatus, skin replacing plasma. The Sushruta Samhita, a classical Ayurveda text, also cites the seven dhatus in the same manner as Parashara. Other older texts may do the same. Some commentators see plasma and skin as interchangable in this context. The student of Jyotish should consider that mercury governs the dhatu plasma.
देवालयजलं वह्निक्रीडादीनां तथैव च।
कोशशय्योत्कराणान्तु नाथां सूर्यादयः क्रमात्॥ ३२॥
32. The places where gods reside; places with water; where there's fire; sports grounds; the treasury; bedrooms and resorts; rubbish heaps. These are the places occupied by Surya and the others in their usual order.
सूर्यादीनां क्रमाज्ज्ञेया निर्विशंकं द्विजोत्तम॥ ३३॥
33. Half a year, a moment, a day, a season, a solar month, half a lunar month, a year; these are the periods of time allotted from Surya and the others, O best of the twice-born.
The grahas bring their effects within the time frame allotted to them. The Moon moves quickly and brings her effects immediately. Saturn is the slowest planet whose effects take the longest to come to fruition.
क्रमेण सर्वे विज्ञेयाः सूर्यादीनां रसा इति॥ ३४॥
34. Pungent, salty, bitter, mixed, sweet, sour, astringent, these are the tastes of Surya and the others.
बुधेज्यौ बलिनौ पूर्वे रविभौमौ च दक्षिणे।
पश्चिमे सूर्यपुत्रश्च सितचन्द्रौ तथोत्तरे॥ ३५॥
35. Budha and Ijya are strong in the east. Ravi and Bhauma are strong in the south. Suryaputra is strong in the west. Sita and Chandra are strong in the north.
The directional strengths of the grahas can be applied to architecture. A building with a south entrance lets in the malevolent influence of the planet Mars. (Refer to verse 11). The preferred entrance faces either east or north.
निशायां बलिनश्चन्द्रकुजसौरा भवन्ति हि।
सर्वदा ज्ञो बली ज्ञेयो दिने शेषा द्विजोत्तम॥ ३६॥
36. Chandra, Kuja and Saura have strength at night. Jna is strong at all times. Understand that the rest are strong during the day, O best of the twice born.
कृष्णे च बलिनः क्रूराः सौम्या वीर्ययुताः सिते।
सौम्यायने सौम्यखेटो बली याम्यायनेऽपरः॥ ३७॥
37. The malevolent grahas are strong when the moon is waning. The benevolent grahas have their strength when the moon is waxing. The benevolent grahas are strong during the half year when the sun is in the northern sky. The rest are strong when the sun is in the southern sky.
वर्षमासाहहोराणां पतयो बलिनस्तथा।
शमंबुगुशुचंराद्या वृद्धितो वीर्यवत्तरः॥ ३८॥
38. The varsha, masa and hora lords are stronger in that order.
सूर्ये जनयति स्थूलान् दुर्भगान् सूर्यपुत्रकः।
क्षीरोपेतांस्तथा चन्द्रः कटुकाद्यान् धरासुतः॥ ३९॥
39. Surya produces trees with large trunks whilst Suryaputra produces plants that are 'durbhaga'. Chandra produces banyan trees, and Dharasuta 'katuka' plants.
Plants symbolise structure, growth and development. In this verse and the next, Parashara uses the metaphor of trees and other plants to describe the grahas.
The Sun produces trees with solid trunks, strong foundations. The Sun is consciousness, the foundation that underlies reality. The Sun forms government, the foundation on which society stands.
Saturn's plants are 'durbhaga'. Durbhaga is a lack of quality or merit. Durbhaga can also mean misfortune, the cause of the grief for which Saturn is noted. The word also has a sexual connotation that implies impotence and a lack of passion.
The banyan tree is said to have its roots in the heavens and its branches in the earth. The Moon is the mind and has its roots in consciousness. Its branches are the senses projecting into material reality.
Katuka means bitter. It also describes someone who is fierce and impetuous.
पुष्पवृक्षं भृगोः पुत्रे गुरुज्ञौ सफलाफलौ।
नीरसान् सूर्यपुत्रश्च एवं ज्ञेयाः खगा द्विज॥ ४०॥
40. Briguputra makes flowering trees and Guru ones that bear fruit, whilst Jna's have no fruit. Suryaputra's plants are without 'rasa'. This is how we come to know the planets, O twice born.
The beautiful and sensuous Venus is naturally associated with flowers. This is the stage of development that promotes reproduction, it is a time that is ripe with sexuallity.
Jupiter produces fruit. Fruit in this context refers to success and good results.
Mercury is too young and immature to bear fruit. Mercury has no sexual potency.
Rasa is the primary dhatu of the seven that were described in verse 31. It is the essential nutrient fluid found in living entities. In terms of human physiology, it is the first level of nourishment derived from food. Plants lacking rasa are dry and withered. The planet Saturn is deficient in this essential element that promotes growth and good health.
शिखिस्वर्भानुमन्दानां वल्मीकः स्थानमुच्यते॥ ४१॥
41. Rahu is born as an outcast, as from the lowest class father and a high class mother. Ketu is of mixed class. Sikhi, Svarbhanu and Manda free themselves from the ant hill.
Valmiki was the author of the epic poem the Ramayana. Legend has it that he spent his early days as a highway robber until he was convinced by Sage Narada to mend his ways. Narada taught him to meditate and Valmiki did so for such a length of time that a colony of ants built their hill around him. He broke himself free only after the meditation had brought him enlightenment.
The anthill is the cocoon in the metamorphosis that transformed him from a course thief to a refined soul. Rahu, Ketu and Saturn are restrictive planets and all three bring difficulties. But the ultimate role of those difficulties is to guide us to enlightenment, to free us from the ant hill.
चित्रकन्था फनीन्द्रस्य केतुश्छिद्रयुतो द्विज।
सीसं रहोर्नीलमणिः केतोर्ज्ञेयो द्विजोत्तम॥ ४२॥
42. Phanindra and Ketu wear ascetic's clothes made from rags. Phanindra's are made of rags of different colours whilst Ketu's are full of holes, o twice-born. It should be known that Rahu is lead and Ketu blue sapphire, o best of the twice-born.
गुरोः पीताम्बरं विप्र भृगोः क्षौमं तथैव च।
रक्तक्षौमं भास्करस्य इन्दोः क्षौमं सितं द्विज॥ ४३॥
43. Guru wears the yellow robes of a holy man. Brigu wears linen, Bhaskara red linen, Indu white linen.
बुधस्य कृष्णक्षौमं तु रक्तवस्त्रं कुजस्य च।
वस्त्रं चित्रं शनेर्विप्र पट्तवस्त्रं तथैव च॥ ४४॥
44. And Budha wears black linen. Kuja's cloth is red whilst Sani's is of many colours. Theirs is fine cloth indeed.
भृगोरृतुर्वसन्तश्च कुजभान्वोश्च ग्रीष्मकः।
चन्द्रस्य वर्षा विज्ञेया शरच्चैव तथा विदः॥ ४५॥
45. Brigu's season is Vasanta, the planet Kuja's is Greeshma, Chandra has Varsha, and the clever one's (Mercury's) season is indeed known as Sarad.
हेमन्तोऽपि गुरोर्ज्ञेयः शनेस्तु शिशिरो द्विज।
अष्टौ मासाश्च स्वर्भानोः केतोर्मासत्रयं द्विज॥ ४६॥
46. Hemanta is know to belong to Guru and Sisira to Sani. Svarbhanu is eight months and Ketu is three months.
The Vedic calendar is divided into six seasons commencing with Vasanta which starts at the northern vernal equinox.
राह्वारपंगुचन्द्रश्च विज्ञेया धातुखेचराः।
मूलग्रहौ सूर्यशुक्रौ अपरा जीवसंज्ञकाः॥ ४७॥
47. The restrictive Rahu, the lame one (Saturn) and Chandra are known as dhatu planets. Surya and Shukra are both mula grahas, and the rest are called jiva ones.
A dhatu is a basic element, mula is a root and jiva is a sentient being. These categories are similar to the Western notion of animal, vegetable and mineral.
ग्रहेषु मन्दो वृद्धोऽस्ति आयुर्वृद्धिप्रदायकः।
नैसर्गिके बहुसमान् ददाति द्विजसत्तम॥ ४८॥
48. Of all the grahas, the slow one (Saturn) is the oldest and wisest, and the bestower of long life. He has the most years in the Naisargika dasa, best of the twice born.
A dasa system designates periods when a planet has a greater influence. The Naisargika dasa is the simplest and applies equally to everyone. The first year of life is ruled by the Moon, the mind awakens. The next two years are governed by Mars. It is a time of great energy and activity, and also a time for tantrums. Age 3 to 12 is governed by Mercury during which time the intellect develops and we learn language. We discover the opposite sex and reach our reproductive peak under the influence of Venus from age 12 to 32. Jupiter guides life from 32 to 50 during which time our wisdom develops and others seek our advise. We are granted the authority of the Sun when we become seniors at the age of 50. The longest period, from 70 to 120, is ruled by the slow moving, inward looking Saturn; the outward world has less appeal as we slow down and come to appreciate life's deeper meaning.
मेषो वृषो मृगः कन्या कर्को मीनस्तथा तुला।
सूर्यादीनां क्रमादेते कथिता उच्चराश्यः॥ ४९॥
49. Mesha, Vrishabha, Mrigah, Kanya, Karka, Meena and Tula; these are the exaltation signs for Surya and the others, in their order.
See the commentary on verse 5 for the Sanskrit names of the twelve signs. Mrigah is another name for Makara.
भागा दश त्रयोऽष्टाश्व्यस्तिथ्योऽक्षा भमिता नखाः।
उच्चात् सप्तमभं नीचं तैरेवांशैः प्रकीर्तितम्॥ ५०॥
50. The height of exaltation (of the preceeding signs) is at 10, 3, 28, 15, 5, 27 and 20 degrees. The seventh sign opposite is the sign of debilitation, and in the same degree.
रवेः सिम्हे नखांशाश्च त्रिकोणमपरे स्वभम्।
उच्चमिन्दोर्वृषे त्र्यंशास्त्रिकोणमपरेंऽशकाः॥ ५१॥
51. Ravi is trikona in the first 20 degrees of Simha, the rest is its own. Indu is exalted in the first three degrees of Vrisha, trikona in the rest.
मेषेऽर्कांशास्तु भौमस्य त्रिकोणमपरे स्वभम्।
उच्चं बुधस्य कन्यायामुक्तं पञ्चदशांशकाः॥ ५२॥
52. Bhauma is in its trikona in the first 12 degrees of Mesha, and in its own in the rest. Bhudha is exalted in liberation in the first 15 degrees of Kanya...
ततः पञ्चांशकाः प्रोक्तं त्रिकोणमपरे स्वभम्।
चापे दशांशा जीवस्य त्रिकोणमपरे स्वभम्॥ ५३॥
53. And the next five degrees are said to be its trikona, following that in its own. Jiva is trikona in the first 10 degrees of Chapa, the rest it is in its own.
Chapa is another name for Dhanu, the bow.
तुले शुक्रस्य तिथ्यंशास्त्रिकोणमपरे स्वभम्।
शनेः कुम्भे नखांशाश्च त्रिकोणमपरे स्वभम्॥ ५४॥
54. Shukra is trikona in the first 15 degrees of Tula, the rest it is in its own. Sani is trikona in the first 20 degrees of Kumbha, and in its own in the rest.
सुहृदो रिपवश्वान्ये समाश्चोभयलक्षणाः॥ ५५॥
55. From the trikona: comfort, wealth, last, knowledge, dharma and longevity, these are the houses of friends. The lord of the house of exaltation is also a friend. The rest are enemies. Friend and enemy both indicates neutrality.
Comfort refers to the fourth house, wealth to the second, last to the twelfth, knowledge to the fifth, dharma to the ninth and longevity to the eighth. Therefore the lord of the fourth house from the trikona house of a planet is a friend of that planet. As are the lords of the fourth, second, twelfth, fifth, ninth and eighth houses. The lord of the exaltation sign of a planet is also a friend. If a planet is a friend because it is lord of the exaltation sign, but an enemy otherwise, then it is neutral.
These are known as natural relationships, they are always constant.
तत्काले मित्रतां यान्ति रिपवोऽन्यत्र संस्थिताः॥ ५६॥
56. If positioned in the tenth house, the house of relatives, gain, siblings, wealth or the last house from a planet then the lord of that house is a friend. Otherwise situated it is an enemy.
The house of relatives is the fourth house, gain is the eleventh, siblings is the third and wealth is the second. A planet positioned in the tenth, fourth, eleventh, third or twelfth house from another planet is a friend of that planet. These are what are called contemporary relationships, they are dependent on the relative positions of the planets at the time of birth.
तत्काले च निसर्गे च मित्रं चेदधिमित्रकम्।
मित्रं मित्रसमत्वे तु शत्रुः शत्रुसमत्वके॥ ५७॥
57. If a planet is both a natural and contemporary friend then it is a great friend. If friendly plus neutral then it is a friend. If enemy and neutral then it is an enemy.
समो मित्ररिपुत्वे तु शत्रुत्वे त्वधिशत्रुता।
एवं विविच्य दैवज्ञो जातकस्य फलं वदेत्॥ ५८॥
58. It becomes neutral if friend and enemy. And a great enemy if enemy and enemy. Thus one can discern and speak of the fate, as delivered by the gods, of the one born.
स्वोच्चे शुभं फलं पूर्ण त्रिकोणे पादवर्जितम्।
स्वर्क्षेऽर्धं मित्रगेहे तु पादमात्रं प्रकीर्तितम्॥ ५९॥
59. Exaltation brings fully auspicious results. In trikona, auspicious results are less by one quarter. In its own constellation auspicious results are one half, and in a friend's house, one quarter.
पादार्धं समभे प्रोक्तं शून्यं नीचास्तशत्रुभे।
तद्वद्दुष्टफलं ब्रूयद् व्यत्ययेन विचक्षणः॥ ६०॥
60. Neutral signifies one eighth, whilst debilitated or in an enemy's stars means no auspicious results. In a similar way the learned should speak of the negative effects in the reverse order.
Alternate names for the grahas are: